SRK carried out a scoping study on an existing open pit operation (12 Mtpa) that is soon to be reaching a depth where the mine will need to transition to a large-scale underground mining method.The goal was to provide production continuity at a rate that will still be suitable to maximise use of the existing surface processing facilities.
Feb 16, 2017 Underground mining is used when an economically viable deposit is situated sufficiently deep such that open pit mining is cost prohibitive. There exist many underground mining techniques (i) open stoping (), (ii) room-and-pillar, (iii) sublevel caving, (iv) drift-and-fill, (v) longwall, and (vi) block caving.Determining which method(s) to use is typically based on
Brummer, R, Li, H Moss, A 2006, The transition from open pit to underground mining An unusual slope failure mechanism at Palabora, Proceedings of International Symposium on Stability of Rock Slopes in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering Situations, The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, pp. 411420.
Mar 20, 2018 Many mines combine open pit with underground mining, and on many occasions the underground mine is an extension of the open-pit. This article is the first of two articles that looks at some of the challenges associated with this situation, and some methods with which to determine the cut-over point from open pit to underground mining and the
Jul 29, 2019 Copper mining began at Palabora in 1965, and by 1967 the open-pit mine was fully operational. The hole reached 800 meters down into the Earth before the depletion of resources made it uneconomical to continue mining in the pit. Operations moved underground (below the pit) and mostly out of sight in the early 2000s.
The present mine plan is for open-pit operations and is to cease operating in 2013 at a depth of 1100m and the remained deposit must be economically exploited by block caving 4, 5. Grasberg copper-gold mine in Indonesia is known as a combined mine of open-pit and underground. Mining by open-pit method will finish by 2015 6, 7.
Feb 23, 2012 Unlike open pit, underground mining requires that you take into account a wide variety of added requirements. These include complex ventilation systems, area and local ground support, and of course finding a consistent, safe, and
Feb 17, 2021 Open pit mining method is one of the surface mining methods that has a traditional cone-shaped excavation and is usually employed to exploit a near-surface, nonselective and low-grade zones deposits. It often results in high productivity and requires large capital investments, low operating costs, and good safety conditions. The main topics that will
Nov 01, 2018 When compared to underground mining methods, open pit surface mining is considerably more efficient. 1. Increased Efficiency. One of the biggest benefits open pit mining produces is the growth in the overall efficiency when compared to deep-shaft mining methods. Mining occurs on the surface, so there arent any space restrictions arising from ...
What is open pit mining . Open pit mines are those mining operations that take place on the surface , unlike the underground mines. This is possible when the reservoir sprouts on the surface or at a very small depth. It began to be realized in the middle of the XVI century and it is used all over the world.
Underground Mining. Underground mining has the potential for tunnel collapses and land subsidence (Betournay, 2011). It involves large-scale movements of waste rock and vegetation, similar to open pit mining. Additionally, like most traditional forms of mining, underground mining can release toxic compounds into the air and water.
A Model for Determining Optimal Transition Depth over from Open-pit to Underground Mining, Proceeding of 5th International Conference on Mass Mining, Lule, Sweden, p. 393-400. CAMUS, J. P., 1992. Open pit optimization considering an underground alternative, Proceeding of 23th International APCOM Symposium, p. 435-441.
Jul 11, 2017 As open pit mining of a mineral deposit deepens, the cost of extraction may increase up to a threshold where transitioning to mining through underground methods is more profitable. This paper provides an approach to determine an optimal depth at which a mine should transition from open pit to underground mining, based on managing technical risk. The
Jun 09, 2020 The combined surface and underground mining method is typically used in an open-pit mine for better production and profits. However, the improved scale of mining operations at the combined mining conditions results in even more intensive strata movement and massive ground damages. This paper assesses the progressive development of the
Open pit or underground methods separately are not practicable for the extraction of this kind of deposits therefore, a combined mining of open pit with one of underground methods is used.
Open Pit To Underground Transition SRK Consulting. SRK carried out a scoping study on an existing open pit operation (12 Mtpa) that is soon to be reaching a depth where the mine will need to transition to a large-scale underground mining method. The goal was to provide production continuity at a rate that will still be suitable to maximise use of the existing surface
THE TRANSITION FROM OPEN PIT TO UNDERGROUND MINING AN UNUSUAL SLOPE FAILURE MECHANISM AT PALABORA Richard K. Brummer*, Hao Li* Allan Moss *Itasca Consulting Canada Inc., Rio Tinto Limited ABSTRACT At the Palabora Mine, the transition to caving 400 m below the bottom of the 800 m deep pit
A large volume of work is available in the industry on many aspects relating to the interaction between open pit and underground mining. Various authors have addressed the optimisation of the transition problem to determine the optimal economic point to transition from open pit mining to underground mining. Several papers have been presented on determining a suitable
These will be unique to the sequence of the open pit underground interaction, which can take any combination of the following forms Scenario 1 Open pit transitioning to underground concurrent mining. Scenario 2 Underground mining below existing open pit. Scenario 3 Open pit mining through existing underground working.
Sublevel caving and open pit interaction at the Ernest Henry mine, Australia At the Ernest Henry mine, the open pit operated to 2011 and had its final dimensions of 1.5 km by 1.3 km at a 530 m depth. Sublevel caving production began after completion of the open pit with the planned cave footprint of a 220 m column (Fig. 5).
SRK carried out a scoping study on an existing open pit operation (12 Mtpa) that is soon to be reaching a depth where the mine will need to transition to a large-scale underground mining method. The goal was to provide production continuity at a rate that will still be suitable to maximise use of the existing surface processing facilities.
OPEN PIT MINING THROUGH UNDERGROUND WORKINGS 4.0 MAKING THE HAZARD VISIBLE All areas of a working bench or flitch that are likely to be underlain by underground workings must be clearly marked and access to this area must be controlled by a specific set of procedures. These procedures should specify the personnel responsible for monitoring and
the stage of seeking an appropriate mining method, the question What would be the optimal mining method, open-pit (OP), underground (UG) or combination mining? is often asked (Topal, 2008). The OP mining strategy is usually engaged to mine near surface orebodies and UG is employed to mine deep deposits.
Apr 05, 2018 Given that underground mining profits are less dependent on depth there will likely be a point where the marginal profit of the underground exceeds that of the open pit. Using this method the cut-over point is the depth at which the marginal profit from the open-pit is equal to the marginal profit from the underground.
During the transition from open-pit to underground mining in iron ore mines, water inrush is a prominent problem for mine safety and production. In this paper, a comprehensive method that incorporates hydrochemical analysis and numerical simulation is proposed to analyse the characteristics of water
Sep 14, 2020 The mine is in the process of transitioning from open pit to underground, to extend its life by some 25 years. As engineering procurement and construction management contractor for South Africas largest mining execution project, Worley is using 3D designs for the project infrastructure to provide 3D models for the entire projects surface ...
Underground mining tends to have a better reputation when it comes to geomorphic impacts, compared to other mining methods, i.e. open pit mining. The truth of the matter is that more often than not, open pit mining and underground mining go hand-in-hand.
Digitalization in mines for optimizing processes. Whether it is the mining of near-surface raw materials such as stone, sand or gold in an open pit mine or the extraction of minerals, metals or ores underground, documenting the entire production process and communication is a challenge for most mining companies. Often, everything is documented using paper notes or forms.
Apr 09, 2017 Open-Pit Mining Methods. Open-pit mining methods are applicable to mining ore deposits that apex at or near the surface. If the deposit apexes below the surface, the overburden and barren capping overlying the ore must be removed in advance of open-pit mining. The removal of this material is known as stripping.
Key considerations to evaluate are open pit stability, shaft stability, dilution, mud rushes and air blasts, and mining method selection. The efficient transition from open pit mining to an underground operation requires extensive planning. For a large mining operation, planning could last as long as 20 years.
Open-pit mining, or open-cast mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful minerals or rocks are found near the
Palabora Mining Set the Precedent During the early 1990s, Palabora Mining embarked on a similar series of feasibility studies to convert its open-pit copper mine in the Limpopo Province to an underground mine. In 1996, it announced it would proceed with the development of an underground block cave mine with a production rate of 30,000 mt/d.
from open pit to underground mining in both a spatial and a temporal sense. This transition incorporates a crown pillar placement that separates the open pit from the underground mine, and of the sill pillars, i.e., levels left in situ that can grant earlier access to stopes by creating a false bottom. Our methodology is
Learn more about open-pit mining. 2. Underground mining. Underground mining is used to extract ore from below the surface of the earth safely, economically and with as little waste as possible. The entry from the surface to an underground mine may be through a horizontal or vertical tunnel, known as an adit, shaft or decline.
Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining, is a surface mining technique that extracts minerals from an open pit in the ground. Open-pit mining is the most common method used throughout the world for mineral mining and does not require extractive methods or tunnels. This surface mining technique is used when mineral or ore deposits are ...